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Welcome to the College of Energy Efficiency

 
 

Because of our commitment to the new energy world, Schneider Electric, the global specialist in Energy Management,  has utilized the extensive experience and knowledge within our organization to launch a set of e-learning courses focusing on the major areas of energy efficiency.   The courses provide the information needed to identify, monitor and manage energy usage and  find new ways to simply and effectively create efficiency in any building or structure.

In addition to learning new energy saving ideas that directly contribute to the overall well-being of the earth; you will also become an even more valuable employee by contributing to the bottom line for your company.

 

Active Energy Efficiency Using Speed Control

Many motors only have two settings: on and off. They operate at constant speed. If a motor turning at constant speed is driving a device or process that requires less output, adjustments are required to achieve the desired output level. This adjustment is often achieved by letting the motor run at full speed, while using downstream devices to block part of the output.

This is like driving your car by having one foot fully depressing the accelerator pedal, and the other on the brake to constantly control the speed.  It sounds absurd, but this is still one of the most common control methods. An estimated 60% of motors are not speed controlled.

The focus of this course is to explore the different ways we can control motor speed efficiently and with minimal physical stress on equipment. In addition, we'll discuss other advantages such as controlled starting and regulated torque.

 

Boiler Types and Opportunities for Energy Efficiency

Steam and hot water provide a means of transporting controllable amounts of energy from a central boiler house, where it can be efficiently and economically generated, to the point of use. Steam and hot water are popular throughout industry for a broad range of tasks from mechanical power production to space heating and process applications. The boiler room is a place where there are many opportunities for energy efficiency, as described in this class.

 

Building Controls I: An Introduction to Building Controls

Have you ever been in a meeting in a conference room where the room was just too hot? Or too cold? Did you find it uncomfortable and hard to concentrate? Have you ever considered how much money is wasted when things like that are not addressed? What’s the solution? The control system within a building is very important to the energy efficiency of the building, and also to the comfort of the building’s occupants. In this class, we will learn a simple definition of a control system, learn the components of a control system, and describe some fundamental types of control and control loops.

 

Building Controls II: Control Sensors

Building control systems are important facets in any building's energy management plan. They help avoid waste and save money. A vital component of a control system is the sensors that are incorporated into the system. We must measure what we wish to control. We need to have a way to make measurements accurately and repeatedly. Sensors measure the data that the controller uses to make decisions based on its set of programmed standards and set points. Sensors are the first step of control. This course provides an overview of the various sensors integrated in a building control system, and looks at the variety of designs and need for correct placement.

 

Building Controls III: Introduction to Control Loops

The purpose of this course is to provide you with an overview of basic building control technology used in buildings, so that you will understand how building controls can contribute to energy efficiency.  We will examine the five controller loop responses and review the terms associated with controller loop responses.

 

Building Controls IV: Two Position and Floating Responses

The purpose of this course is to examine the two-position response and the floating response. We’ll also spend some time working in an interactive example whereby you can simulate how changing a VAV box will affect static pressure and temperature in the environment.

 

Building Controls V: Proportional and PID Responses

The purpose of this course is to define proportional control responses along with investigating how integral and derivatives affect proportional control responses. We’ll also spend some time explaining the appropriate use of each control response.

 

Building Controls VI: When to Use Each Response

The purpose of this course is to define proportional control responses along with investigating how integral and derivatives affect proportional control responses. We’ll also spend some time explaining the appropriate use of each control response.

 

Building Controls VII: Interactive Illustration of PID Response

The purpose of this course is to see how proportional control may oscillate and stabilize at a point above the setpoint and how an integral term helps a control loop to achieve a result closer to the setpoint. We’ll also spend some time explaining how derivatives help to prevent overshoots.

 

Building Controls VIII: Controllers and Controlled Devices

If we can control an environmental system we can tell equipment when to turn on and off, how slow or fast to run, and how cool or hot the temperature of air or water needs to be.

For an environmental control, or building automation system to work effectively, three things must take place: Measured data must be input into the system. That data must be compared with a set of standards or instructions. Lastly, an action to change or maintain current environmental conditions must be made.

In the previous class in this series we looked at how controllers respond to the inputs they receive.  We will now look at the different classifications of controllers.  We’ll also see how the control loop is completed by controlled devices, which take the actions that maintain or change current environmental conditions.

 

Building Envelope Metric Version

The building envelope is a critical component of any facility since it protects the building occupants and plays a major role in regulating the indoor environment. Consisting of the building's foundation, walls, roof, windows, and doors, the envelope controls the flow of energy between the interior and exterior of the building. A well designed envelope allows the building to provide comfort for the occupants and respond efficiently to heating, cooling, ventilating, and natural lighting needs.

Today we will examine the elements of the building envelope (floors, walls, windows and ceiling) and how those elements participate in heat transfer. We will discuss heat loss or gain due to transmission, infiltration and ventilation. This course contains many equations used to determine heat loss and gain through the building envelope, and we will supply a sample case study of a building throughout the course to help explain each topic.

 

Building Envelope-US Version

The building envelope is a critical component of any facility since it protects the building occupants and plays a major role in regulating the indoor environment. Consisting of the building's foundation, walls, roof, windows, and doors, the envelope controls the flow of energy between the interior and exterior of the building. A well designed envelope allows the building to provide comfort for the occupants and respond efficiently to heating, cooling, ventilating, and natural lighting needs.

Today we will examine the elements of the building envelope (floors, walls, windows and ceiling) and how those elements participate in heat transfer. We will discuss heat loss or gain due to transmission, infiltration and ventilation. This course contains many equations used to determine heat loss and gain through the building envelope, and we will supply a sample case study of a building throughout the course to help explain each topic.

 

Combined Heat and Power

Cogeneration today is widely used throughout the world for efficient production of heat and power. Cogeneration is the simultaneous production of heat and power in a single thermodynamic process. The purpose of this course is to review the different approaches for applying technologies to the function of cogeneration.  We’ll also explore the various issues and considerations for deployment of the two main types of cogeneration concepts: "Topping Cycle" plants (including “Combined Cycle” plants), and "Bottoming Cycle" plants.

 

Combustion Processes

Combustion is an almost universal process in energy use, and it usually offers opportunities for modest but worthwhile energy savings through good management. Conversely, it carries a significant risk of avoidable energy waste.

In this course, you will learn the basics of combustion chemistry, how avoidable losses arise, and how they are measured. Particular attention will be paid to burners fitted in heating boilers but the basic principles are applicable to any kind of combustion plant.

 

Commissioning For Energy Efficiency

Commissioning is a process to ensure building performance problems are understood and corrected. Deficiencies such as design flaws, construction defects, malfunctioning equipment, and deferred maintenance have a multitude of consequences, ranging from equipment failure, to poor indoor air quality and comfort, to unnecessarily high energy use or under-performance of energy efficiency strategies. Fortunately, an emerging form of quality assurance, known as building commissioning, can identify and cure most deficiencies. This course will explain the purpose of a commissioning process, and discuss the impact of the commissioning process on energy efficiency.

 

Compressed Air I: An Introduction

Compressed air is widely used throughout industry.  It is sometimes called the “fourth utility”, after electricity, gas and water.  From mining, lumber and paper mills, petroleum, chemical, textile and glass production to small manufacturing plants and hotels, compressed air provides critical services and can often represent the majority of the facility energy costs. Since many facilities cannot function without compressed air, reliability is paramount, but given that sound operating practices can reduce energy consumption by 20% to 50%, efficiency is high on the agenda.
This is the first in a series of compressed air system courses offered by Energy University. In this course, we will look at the relative inefficiency of compressed air and examine the components of a compressed air system.

 

Compressed Air Systems II: Compressor Types

Compressed air is one of the most expensive utilities.  There are many different types and designs of air compressors. Each is suited for different applications in buildings and industry. In this course, we will explore the main types of compressors and identify their differences, compare the capacity and efficiency of different types of compressors and we will identify appropriate compressor types for an application.

This is the second in a series of compressed air system courses offered by Energy University. If you have not already done so, it is recommended that you participate in Compressed Air Systems I: An Introduction before taking this course.

 

Compressed Air Systems III: Controlled Methods

Compressed air is an extremely expensive utility.  Therefore, efficient control methods can have a big impact on the energy costs of the system. The purpose of this course is to identify the various methods to control air compressor capacity, including methods that control the flow of air into the compressor and ways of controlling the loading of the compressor itself.

 

Compressed Air Systems IV: Supply Side Components

Compressed air system components can usually identified by major function that they provide whether the function is related to compression, conditioning, filtration, distribution, and some nature of end use.  Most systems have a supply-side and a demand-side.  This course will explore the supply-side, which is normally where ambient air is processed into a pressurized, dry, clean form that can be used for many useful tasks.

 

Compressed Air Systems V: Efficient Management & Utilization

In this class, the demand side of the compressed air system is explored. The demand side includes components after the primary receiver, and the pressure / flow controller including the distribution and storage components, and end use equipment. A properly managed demand-side minimizes wasted air and uses compressed air for appropriate applications. This course addresses how to deal with the inefficiencies that can be present in the demand side of the system, thereby leading to energy and cost savings.

 

Compressed Air Systems VI: Seven Steps to Better Efficiency

Compressed air is commonly referred to as the fourth utility. Utilities play a major role in the modern world – without them, today’s technologically advanced society could not function. While compressed air systems are widespread, they can also be extremely inefficient. Compressed air systems typically consume more energy and cost more to operate than anything else in industrial environments. All of that can change by utilizing an action plan that will help reduce inefficiencies, thereby saving valuable assets. In this class, we will explore a seven step action plan designed to improve the efficiency of any compressed air system.

 

Demand Response and the Smart Grid

Investment in electrical infrastructure has struggled to keep up with increased demand. We have seen demand become so strong that it has triggered large network failures. Demand response programs provide a simple way for facility managers to get paid for reducing consumption and relieving load on the power grid when it is stressed. In effect they are returning capacity to the grid and being paid for that asset. This course will look at the issues involved, how Demand Response works, why it is beneficial, and what the Smart Grid is.

 

Distributed Generation

Due recent electricity market liberalization and on-going concerns regarding the cost of electricity as well as efforts towards environmentalism; distributed generation is experiencing a renewed interest throughout the world. Distributed generation, is generally defined as small-scale electricity generation and is used to provide an alternative to or an enhancement of the traditional electric power system. The purpose of this course is to discuss the various small-scale generation technologies that exist today and then move on with a discussion of the major benefits and issues of distributed generation.

 

Efficient Motor Control with Power Drives Systems

In buildings, nearly three quarters of the electricity consumed is used to turn motors. For a typical motor, the lifetime energy bill is equivalent to 100 times the cost of the motor itself. The money invested in motors, is merely 1% of their total cost. And installing and maintaining those motors accounts for only 2% of overall motor costs. 97% of costs associated with motors are spent on the energy required to operate them. This course will provide an overview of power drive systems and motors along with insight on efficiency. This course will also cover, gears - types, efficiency and maintenance.

 

Electric Vehicles: Plugging into Smarter Energy Management

This class discusses the technological, economic, and safety aspects involved in linking massive numbers of plug-in electric vehicles to the grid and what it all means to  consumers, facility and vehicle fleet managers, and electric utilities.

 

Electrical Concepts

This course explores the fundamentals of energy units and electricity. With energy demand rising and greenhouse gas emissions in sharp focus around the world, the time has come for everyone to take action to economize on energy use by the intelligent application of technology to bring about energy efficiency. Understanding these units and concepts is the foundation to managing and controlling energy – and the key to reducing both consumption and emissions.

 

Energy Audits

Energy audits are comprehensive evaluations of the actual performance of a facility’s energy—using systems and equipment—compared against the designed performance level or the industry best practice. The purpose of this course is to review the different types of energy audits; the overall auditing process—as well as auditing methodology, in order to successfully prepare and participate in the energy audit process.

 

Energy Audits Instrumentation I

Energy audits are comprehensive evaluations of the actual performance of a plant’s energy using systems and equipment compared against the designed performance level or the industry best practice. The difference between observed performance and “best practice” is the potential for energy and cost savings. The purpose of this course is to review electrical, lighting, temperature and humidity measurement instruments used in energy audits in order to select and employ the appropriate instrument for your auditing needs.

 

Energy Audits Instrumentation II

Energy audits are comprehensive evaluations of the actual performance of a plant's energy using systems and equipment compared against the designed performance level or the industry best practice. The difference between observed performance and "best practice" is the potential for energy and cost savings. The purpose of this course is to the measurement instruments used in energy audits in order to select and employ the appropriate instrument for your auditing needs. This is a continuation of Energy Audits Instrumentation I. (Please take Energy Audits Instrumentation I prior to proceeding with this course.)

 

Energy Efficiency Fundamentals

This course offers an overview of the energy dilemma and why energy efficiency is the quickest, cleanest, most effective solution. It explains where 72% of energy is consumed and how up to 30% can be saved through passive and active energy efficiency.

 

Energy Efficiency with Building Automation Systems I

In this course we will focus on what a building automation system (BAS) is as well as some of the commonly used terminology. We will also look at some of the HVAC strategies used in building automation systems.

 

Energy Efficiency with Building Automation Systems II

In this course, we will focus on the energy conservation measures that can be used with building automation systems.

 

Energy Procurement I: Options in Regulated and Deregulated Markets

The procurement of energy (electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, etc.) is becoming a major part of the energy manager's job. Cost effective energy procurement requires understanding of the market, regulatory limitations and opportunities, and contingency planning. The purpose of this course is to raise awareness of the available options for energy procurement.

 

Energy Procurement II: Introduction to Hedging in Deregulated Markets

Unprecedented volatility in today’s energy markets has wreaked havoc on the profit margins and bottom lines of many industrial companies.  In order to successfully manage costs in this market, it is critical to apply commodity-based market purchasing strategies—or as it is commonly known in the industry: “hedging”.  Energy price risk management and hedging programs quantify exposure to adverse events and mitigate the impact of those events on financial results. An on-going Energy Risk Management program can provide for more predictable budgeting and insulate future earnings from the unpredictable effects of volatile energy prices. The purpose of this course is to address the hedging process. We will also cover the spot and forward markets as well as fixed and index linked contracts.

 

Energy Procurement III: Balanced Hedging Strategies

Managing energy costs is the key to a successful profit margin and bottom line for many industrial companies.  In order to successfully manage costs in this market, it is helpful to apply a balanced hedging strategy.  A balanced hedging approach will quantify exposure to adverse events and mitigate the impact of those events on financial results. The purpose of this course is to describe a variety of hedging strategies, and identify the main drivers of energy prices. We will also cover how the commodity market functions to support energy trading.

 

Energy Rate Structures I: Concepts and Unit Pricing

Understanding the forms of energy used at a facility, and the rate structure for each, is key to understanding energy costs and implementing an energy efficiency program. By understanding what you are paying for energy, and how the rate structure controls your bill, you can adopt different strategies for reducing your energy costs. You may even be able to move to a different rate structure that is more cost effective for you. In this course, we will focus primarily on gas and electricity concepts and unit pricing.

 

Energy Rate Structures II: Understanding and Reducing Your Bill

Understanding the forms of energy used at a facility, and the rate structure for each, is key to understanding energy costs and implementing an energy efficiency program. By understanding what you are paying for energy, and how the rate structure controls your bill, you can adopt different strategies for reducing your energy costs. In this course, we will focus primarily on gas and electricity pricing and rate calculations along with ways to shift your energy load in order to reduce your electricity costs.

 

European Codes and Standards: New Horizons for Buildings

Greenhouse gases, including CO2, have been identified as the culprits of global warming and the vast majority of industrialised countries have agreed to cut emissions drastically over the coming decades. Buildings account for nearly 40% of the energy used in most countries. They are responsible for a similar level of global CO2 emissions. Therefore, energy efficiency in buildings is one of the keys to reducing greenhouse emissions. The main driving force to achieve the ambitious goals that have been set for the reduction of greenhouse gases will come from energy efficiency regulations, building codes, standards, labels, certifications, obligations, and incentives, all of which have been multiplying steadily over recent decades. This course focuses on those main driving forces.

 

Fan Systems I: Introduction to Fan Performance

Fans are machines for moving air and air-borne materials, and are widely used in industrial and commercial applications.  Fans use billions of kilowatt-hours of energy each year.  Fan reliability can be critical – for example, in material handling operations fan failure will often force a process stoppage.  The importance of reliability may cause system designers to compensate for uncertainties by adding capacity to fans.  Unfortunately, fans that are oversized for their service requirements do not operate at their best efficiency points.  Paradoxically oversizing fan systems creates problems that can increase system operating costs while decreasing fan reliability.

In this class we provide a basic introduction to fans to equip an energy manager to understand the principal characteristics of this equipment.

 

Fan Systems II: Fan Types

Key impacts that determine which fan type is the most appropriate include technical and nontechnical attributes. Understanding the principles of fan selection can be helpful in correcting poor system performance, especially during retrofit or upgrade opportunities. In this course we will look at the different fan types and the appropriate applications for each fan type.

 

Fan Systems III: Improving System Efficiency

Fan systems are vital to the operation of many industries and buildings. Fans often serve over a wide range of operating conditions because of changes in ambient conditions, occupancy, and production demands. The importance of fans often causes system designers to be concerned about under-performing systems. Designers tend to compensate for uncertainties by adding capacity. However, peak requirements may only occur for a few days or weeks each year, and normal operating conditions could be well below the design conditions. Although your fan may be the right size some of the time, it may be the wrong size most of the time. An oversized fan operates below its most efficient point and creates problems such as high capital costs, high energy costs, decreased reliability, high system pressures and flow noise. In this course we will discuss the ways that airflow is controlled in fan systems and we will define the main opportunities to improve performance in fan systems. We will also explore common fan system problems.

 

Fan Systems IV: Improving System Efficiency

Problems such as unusually high operating and maintenance costs, poor airflow delivery, surges or noise or wear on the electrical components can be caused by oversized fans, poor system design, poor balancing or leakage, or wasteful airflow control practices. Often, users are only concerned with initial cost, accepting the lowest bid for a component, while ignoring system efficiency. To achieve optimum fan system economics, users should select equipment based on life-cycle economics and operate and maintain the equipment for peak performance. This course helps define opportunities to improve fan system performance by identifying common fan problems. We'll also uncover why a highly efficient fan system is not merely a system with an energy-efficient motor.

 

Financial Analysis of Projects I

Rising energy prices, dwindling resources and environmental impacts are headline news for today’s business owners. Energy efficiency projects have been shown to be low risk, high return investments. Financial analysis is key to getting your project approved by decision makers. If your project is presented using the language and terms they recognize, you will be off to a good start. Therefore energy managers require a thorough grasp of how economic analysis is used to evaluate return on investment.  This enables you to compare and prioritize projects, and gain management approval. This course stresses the use of simple financial terminology when presenting projects for approval. In addition, we will learn to determine simple return on investment and payback period of a project and construct a cash flow table and obtain the discounted payback, net present value and internal rate of return of a project. We will end with an explanation of lifecycle costing and its importance when attempting to gain project approval.

 

Financial Analysis of Projects II

Many country and state governments are providing financial incentives for energy efficiency projects in the form of tax credits. Building the value of these credits into your financial analysis can help you to win approval for your projects. However, our financial analysis is only as good as the data that we put in. There are some common pitfalls that we should take care to avoid. This course helps to illustrate why including elements such as marginal cost and blended rates are essential when calculating savings. We will use Excel to construct cash flow, internal rate of return, net present value, and annual return.

 

Financing and Performance Contracting for Energy Efficiency Projects

Everywhere, the economy is tight and banks becoming more and more cautious with regards to lending.  However, this doesn’t mean that there is no alternative business funding options for you. The purpose of this course is to discuss general financing alternatives, the aspects of performance contracting, along with ways to measure and verify energy savings.

 

Fuels I: Energy Sources and Trends

Understanding fuels is fundamental to energy management, since trends in production, supply, and demand all affect pricing and availability, with critical effects on business results. Choosing between alternate fuels requires a sound knowledge of energy values and conversion calculations. In this course we will discuss the current energy sources chiefly used, define the different types of energy, discuss renewable and nonrenewable energy sources, and what the predicted trends are for future fuel consumption.

 

Fuels II: Energy Value Analysis

As we discussed in part one of this series, understanding fuels is fundamental to energy management, since trends in production, supply, and demand all affect   pricing and availability, with critical effects on business results. In this course we will look at how choosing between alternate fuels requires a sound knowledge of  energy values and conversion calculations. We will also learn about evaluating the energy value and cost of the different costs of available fuels.

 

Going Green with Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

This course defines green buildings, explains the mission of the US Green Building Council and the requirements of the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design rating system. Schneider Electric solutions for meeting the LEED requirements will also be explained.

 

How to Use the Energy University Site

This course will provide instruction on using the Energy University course.

 

HVAC and Characteristics of Air

HVAC & Characteristics of Air introduces some basic HVAC terms that are useful when looking at the efficiency of an HVAC system. This course discusses how an HVAC system manipulates the properties of the air in the conditioned space to regulate a desirable rate of heat transfer. Calculations for Sensible Heat Transfer and Total Heat Transfer are also explained.

 

HVAC and Psychrometric Charts-SI Version

Psychrometrics is the study of the thermodynamic properties of moist air and its effect on materials and human comfort. Psychrometrics applies the well understood relationships between humidity and temperature in the air to practical problems.

HVAC system designers use these factors to model the HVAC requirements depending on the location of the building and the needs of the occupants or processes within it.  This course explores how those factors are used to ensure an effective HVAC system, while discussing how Psychrometric Charts are utilized to drive HVAC sizing and evaluation.

 

HVAC and Psychrometric Charts-US Version

Psychrometrics is the study of the thermodynamic properties of moist air and its effect on materials and human comfort. Psychrometrics applies the well understood relationships between humidity and temperature in the air to practical problems.

HVAC system designers use these factors to model the HVAC requirements depending on the location of the building and the needs of the occupants or processes within it.  This course explores how those factors are used to ensure an effective HVAC system, while discussing how Psychrometric Charts are utilized to drive HVAC sizing and evaluation.

 

HVAC Efficiency and Equipment Optimization

HVAC is often a major component of the energy costs in a building. The efficiency of HVAC is dependent on both the efficiency of the equipment and the efficiency of the system – how it is designed and operated. Choosing the lowest cost system will often be a mistake when lifecycle costs are taken into account. However even high-efficiency equipment can underperform if not operated optimally. This course looks at a variety of key success factors to optimize the efficiency of an HVAC system. It also explains how the efficiency of HVAC units is measured, and how the overall capacity of a system can be expressed.

 

HVAC Geothermal Heat Pumps

Geothermal heat pumps are fast becoming the leading technology for heating and cooling in energy efficient buildings.  When using a geothermal heat pump for heating efficiencies are 50% to 70% higher than other heating systems and cooling efficiencies are 20% to 40% higher than conventional air conditioners.  Better yet, these savings do not require complicated or difficult to operate systems.  Geothermal heat pumps rely on off-the-shelf components that are familiar in conventional air conditioning.  The underground components typically have a 50 year warranty. (Source: International Ground Source Heat Pump Association)

In this course, we will explore all aspects of the geothermal heat pump, including the various installation types, and discuss the benefits and drawbacks of each type.

 

HVAC Source Equipment for Cooling I

This course will introduce you to the five refrigeration processes; Vapor-compression, Air cycle Absorption, Thermoelectric, Evaporative cooling. You will learn about the operation of the vapor-compression cycle including the four basic components. Finally, you will learn about the impact of energy consumption when adjusting a thermal lift.

 

HVAC Source Equipment for Cooling II

As a continuation of HVAC Source Equipment for Cooling II, this course will explain the use of air-cycle and thermoelectric systems as well as the operation of the absorption refrigerator and evaporative cooling. This course will also provide an overview of various types of heat exchange equipment.

 

HVAC Systems I: Introduction to HVAC Systems

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems are critical in maintaining a comfortable and productive environment. The first course in a series of three, this course will review the processes in HVAC and examine a simple type of an all air-system.

 

HVAC Systems II: All-Air Systems and Temperature Control

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems are essential to maintain a comfortable and productive environment. The second course in a series of three, this course will explain the impact of constant volume, variable air volume and reheat in an all-air system, including dual-duct and multizone all-air systems.

 

HVAC Systems III: Air-and-Water and All-Water Systems

Air-and-water systems are used primarily for perimeter building spaces with high sensible loads. All-water systems use water as the medium for providing heating and cooling throughout a building. The third course in a series of three, this course will explain the functions of air-and-water systems as well as an all-water system.

 

HVAC Thermodynamic States

All refrigeration systems involve the movement or transport of heat from a cold region to a warm region.  The subject of thermodynamics describes how these heat transports may occur.

Thermodynamics is a branch of physical science that deals with the relations between heat and other forms of energy (such as mechanical, electrical, or chemical energy), and, by extension, of the relationships and interconvertibility of all forms of energy.  “Thermo” means heat, and “dynamic” refers to energy and change.

In cooling applications, we are interested in managing heat, energy, and change, and so a knowledge of basic thermodynamics helps us to grasp the processes that are taking place, for example, in an air-conditioner.

 

Industrial Insulation I: Materials and Systems

Most engineers, architects, and end users are familiar with the use of insulation to reduce heating and cooling loads and control noise in building envelopes. Insulations used for pipes, ducts, tanks, and equipment are not as familiar. The installed cost of these materials is usually a small part of the total cost of a project. As a result, mechanical insulation is often overlooked, undervalued, or improperly specified and maintained in commercial and industrial construction projects. The purpose of this course is to review the different types of industrial insulation applications for a given application.

 

Industrial Insulation II: Design Data Calculations

The pipes and installations in industrial plants often carry materials that need to be kept at a certain temperature for an optimal production process. Unless the pipes and installations are properly insulated, the proper temperature may not be maintained. And while placing the actual insulation onto the mechanics—such as a pipe, tank or vessel—is fairly easy; determining what type of insulation to use and how much—is not so easy. The focus of Industrial Insulation II will be on the process of performing calculations in order to determine the requirements/impact of industrial insulation.

 

Industrial Insulation III: Inspection and Maintenance

Insulation systems, like all mechanical systems, require a schedule of regular inspection and maintenance. Despite the well known fact that inspection and maintenance are the responsibility of the owner, the reality is that most insulation systems are frequently ignored. Over time, insulation systems can also become damaged due to a variety of reasons-and if not repaired or replaced-can be rendered useless. The purpose of this course is to discuss the proper process of inspection and maintenance for industrial insulation.

 

Lighting I: Lighting Your Way

Lighting is considered a “quick hit” by many building owners and managers looking to save energy and reduce costs.  This class is a preliminary introduction to the four principles for efficient lighting, which every energy manager should be aware of.  Improving lighting is not just about energy efficient lamps, but also about the right amount of light, the right lamps, controlling lighting, and ensuring systems are commissioned and maintained correctly.

 

Lighting II: Defining Light

We all know what light is. Yet most of us would find it difficult to define or describe it.  Knowledge of natural and artificial light sources improves our ability to create quality interior environments and control them.  In this class, we will learn how to describe and quantify light - terms that are important vocabulary when we interact with lighting professionals as we evaluate and select solutions.

 

Lighting III: Lamp Families: Incandescent and Low Pressure Discharge

At the heart of lighting performance is the lamp or light source.  Lamps are the key determinant in the amount, quality, and distribution of light from a luminaire.  Additionally, power consumption, maintenance and life cycle are lamp characteristics a facility owner will live with long after the initial purchase is made.

In this class, we will learn about the key characteristics of incandescent (including halogen) and low pressure discharge lamps, particularly fluorescent.  We'll learn about the advantages and disadvantages, and the appropriate applications of each lamp family. As we look at fluorescent lamps, we'll also examine ballast factor and see how ballasts contribute to energy efficiency.  Certain lamps can also contribute to an effect called "low power factor".  We'll look at this briefly and see how it can impact your energy bill.

 

Lighting IV: Basic Lamp Families: High-Intensity Discharge and LED

At the heart of lighting performance is the lamp or light source.  Lamps are the key determinant in the amount, quality, and distribution of light from a luminaire.  Additionally, power consumption, maintenance and life cycle are lamp characteristics a facility owner will live with long after the initial purchase is made.

In this class, we will learn about the key characteristics of high intensity discharge lamps, particularly metal halide and light emitting diodes.  We'll learn about the advantages and disadvantages, and the appropriate applications of each lamp family.

 

Lighting V: Economics

Lighting is frequently a large proportion of the energy consumption in buildings and can be a significant cost in industrial spaces too.
Projects to improve the energy efficiency of lighting are among some of the lowest risk, highest payback projects that an energy manager can select. To select and justify those projects, energy managers need to be able to show how the changes will impact the consumption and present the financial benefits. In this class we’ll see a number of ways to make simple evaluations of lighting projects. Before you take this class, you will need a basic understanding of electrical fundamentals such as demand, power and energy. You will also need to understand energy rate structures. Please see our classes on these topics if you need them as prerequisites.

 

Lighting VI: Calculations with the Lumen Method

The lumen method of lighting calculation determines the average illuminance in a given space. The purpose of this course is to provide an overview of the process to calculate lighting requirements. This course is stated in US measurements.

 

Maintenance Best Practices for Energy Efficient Facilities

Good maintenance saves energy costs! Properly maintained facilities and equipment produce quality products, reduce downtime and have lower energy costs. This adds up to real money!  This course will address the importance of maintenance in facilities, discuss the savings proper maintenance can contribute, and identify techniques that can lead to the energy efficient maintenance of facilities.

 

Measurement and Verification: Including IPMVP

Measurement and verification can be defined as the process of measurement to determine the actual savings created by an energy management program or energy conservation improvements. The purpose of this course is to explore the concept of measurement and verification, including the role of guidelines such as IPMVP

 

Measuring and Benchmarking Energy Performance

Measurement and benchmarking appears in two key stages in an efficiency improvement cycle. Before starting an improvement program, measurement and benchmarking helps determine where and to what degree energy is wasted. It also provides a baseline for future comparison. Measurement during the monitoring stage helps identify deviations that need to be corrected, in order to sustain savings. In this course, we’ll discuss energy accounting, and examine some of the concepts and methods involved in energy measurement and benchmarking. We’ll also explore the components of a utility bill, and provide benchmarking examples to verify charges.

 

Motors: A Performance Opportunity Roadmap

Electric motors, taken together, make up the single largest end use of electricity in many developed countries. In many developed countries, in industrial applications, electric motors account for roughly 60% of electricity consumption; in the process industries, electric motors can account for more than 70% of electricity use. The cost of running a motor can be as much as ten times to the purchasing cost of a motor. Therefore operation of motors represents a huge potential for energy savings.

 

Motors: Losses, Loads and Operating Costs

Electric motors, taken together, make up the single largest end use of electricity in many developed countries. In many developed countries, in industrial applications, electric motors account for roughly 60% of electricity consumption; in the process industries, electric motors can account for more than 70% of electricity use. The cost of running a motor can be as much as ten times to the purchasing cost of a motor. Therefore operation of motors represents a huge potential for energy savings. The purpose of this course is to provide an overview of the energy losses and energy efficiency factors in motors. It will also enable you to make cost calculations that allow different scenarios to be compared leading to sound energy efficient decisions.

 

Power Factor and Harmonics

Low power factor and harmonics are a frustration for electrical installations. They can cause power losses and reduced energy reliability. In the context of increasing concern about energy efficiency and energy management, power factor and harmonics are important issues to consider for the management of electrical installations. This course will explore power factor and harmonics and will explain how power factor correction and harmonic mitigation provide immediate benefit in terms of reduced power losses, reduced electricity bill, and the possibility to use the total system capacity.

 

Proven Strategies for Saving Energy in a Retail Environment

Globally retail companies spend billions of dollars and euros on energy each year. Those costs can account for 25 percent to 40 percent of ongoing building expenses. In many countries, energy costs continue to rise - for example in the US those costs rose 31 percent from 2003 to 2005, according to U.S. federal figures.  There is no indication that these costs will fall in the future. In fact, the U.S. Department of Energy projects a 30 percent sustained increase in the cost of electricity.

This course will identify ten strategies for saving energy and reducing cost in the retail environment, as well as describe the benefits provided by implementing energy efficient practices.

 

Pumping Systems I: Pump Types and Performance

Pumps are essential to the daily operation of many facilities. This tends to promote the practice of sizing pumps conservatively to ensure that the needs of the system will be met under all conditions. Intent on ensuring that the pumps are large enough to meet system needs, engineers often overlook the cost of oversizing pumps and err on the side of safety by adding more pump capacity. Unfortunately, this practice results in higher-than-necessary system operating costs. In addition, oversized pumps typically require more frequent maintenance than properly sized pumps. Excess flow energy increases the wear and tear on system components, resulting in valve damage, piping stress, and excess system operation noise. A pump does not function in isolation: it is part of a system of supply and demand. The use of a “systems approach” will typically yield a quieter, more efficient, and more reliable system. In this course, we will explore the advantages of different types of pumps, pump components, and end-use equipment. We’ll also examine pump efficiency curves to gain a better understanding of the flow/pressure relationship.

 

Pumping Systems II: Efficient Flow Control

The purpose of this course is to examine the chief factors that impact the efficiency of pumping systems. Pumping systems commonly have a wide range of flow needs. Since flow may have to be increased or decreased depending on demand, flow control is essential to system performance. This class will examine the various flow control methods generally found in pumping systems today. We also cover the effects of impeller trimming, piping configurations, and oversized pumps.

 

Pumping Systems III: Improving System Efficiency

Pumping systems support essential processes in buildings, manufacturing and water treatment.  A pump does not function in isolation: it is part of a system of supply and demand. The use of a ‘systems approach’ will typically yield a quieter, more efficient, and more reliable system.  This course will explore how fine-tuning a pump’s performance helps to render it more suitable for the system, while appropriate design of piping configurations helps to reduce energy losses.  We’ll also recap how you can detect oversized pumps in your pumping system.

 

Steam Systems I: Advantages and Basics of Steam

Steam has come a long way from its traditional associations with locomotives and the Industrial Revolution. Today, it serves as an integral and essential part of modern technology. This course will introduce the benefits of utilizing steam in numerous processes and discuss t selecting the appropriate pressures for each of these different processes.

 

Steam Systems II: Impact of Boiler Sizing, Pressure, and Velocity

Steam has come a long way from its traditional associations with locomotives and the Industrial Revolution. Today, it serves as an integral and essential part of modern technology. This course will introduce a measure of boiler efficiency and discuss the impact of correct boiler sizing as well as how working pressure affects efficiency. We will also look at choosing the correct steam velocity for a given system. Finally, we will talk about how air and non-condensable gases can impact a steam system.

 

Steam Systems III: Distribution, Control & Regulation of Steam

Steam is one of the oldest and most widely used forms of energy in industry. Difficulties in energy management of steam arise from the fact that it is often a totally unmeasured service. The distribution, control and regulation of steam is crucial because inefficiency translates into additional operating costs. The savings potential is enormous: Not only from a fiscal standpoint, but also from an environmental standpoint. This course will review the basics of steam systems and list the benefits associated with measuring steam. We will discuss steam piping design, metering, and steam manifolds. Also addressed are two typical applications of tracing as well as the components involved when controlling and regulating steam.

 

Steam Systems IV: Condensate Removal—Prevent your energy from going down the drain course

In the previous courses, we saw that steam condenses in the distribution pipes, and has to be removed to avoid water hammer. The financial value of condensate has been neglected in the past, but has a distinct monetary value which must be recaptured. This course will explore why it is far too valuable to merely discard condensate to the ground or a drain.  It will help you to calculate the value of the condensate, and explain the different types of steam traps available for separating.

 

Steam Systems V: Condensate Removal - Maximizing Your Recovery

In Steam Systems part one, we discussed the overall advantages and basics of steam as source of energy. In part two, we looked at the impact of boiler sizing, pressure and velocity on overall system efficiency.  During part three, we reviewed the distribution, control and regulation of steam, and in part four we learned how to prevent energy from going down the drain by implementing proper condensate removal strategies. Now we will further explore condensate removal and show you how to maximize your recovery with considerations for choosing traps, proper testing and sizing of traps and options for how to lift the condensate. To ensure your steam system enjoys a long and full life cycle, we’ll summarize a preventative maintenance program. The downfalls of by-passes, and impact of waterlogging will also be discussed.

 

Steam Systems VI: Recovering Energy from Flash Steam

In this series of courses on steam systems we have reviewed a number of key success factors for efficient operation of steam systems, including correct boiler sizing, selection of working pressure and pipe sizing, metering of steam, and removal of condensate. Flash steam is another essential topic for the efficient management of steam. This course will discuss how flash steam recovery contributes to energy efficiency, how to identify how much flash steam is available and discuss ways to recover that steam.

 

Strategic Energy Planning

Strategic energy planning is the development of an overall energy resource plan to ensure that necessary energy resources are available, and to make the most cost effective energy decisions.  It provides for orderly growth in energy consumption and transition to new fuels or suppliers when required.  A strategic energy plan will address short and long term actions to improve and sustain the energy efficiency of the facility, define procurement strategy, and provide contingencies for outages, expansion, or reduction in production and occupancy.  This class provides an overview of the important pre-requisites for planning and the components of an effective plan.

 

Thermal Energy Storage

Storing thermal energy can save money in a number of different ways. High-cost peak-time power usage is avoided. Also, with stored cooling capacity, the cooling system doesn’t have to cope with the hottest part of the day in real-time. It may be possible to install a smaller compressor, pumps and pipes. This may help reduce the initial purchase cost and operating and maintenance costs.

Some very broad conditions favor thermal energy storage, but it’s not advisable without competent staff to oversee operation.

This course offers a description of the various forms thermal energy storage, describes strategies, provides advantages and drawbacks and provides realistic examples and calculations in US Customary and Metric units.

 

US Energy Codes and standards

Energy-efficient buildings and products offer economic and environmental benefits. They diminish energy expenditures and environmental pollutants caused by consuming fossil fuels. They also help highlight economic opportunities for business and industry by promoting new energy efficient technologies. This course will discuss the codes and standards that influence and mandate energy usage in the United States.  This course seeks to define the difference between an energy code and an energy standard, and explores specific codes and standards for lighting, ventilation and other relevant areas, while identifying the laws and international codes that govern them.

 

Waste Heat Recovery

Waste heat is present in almost all industries and processes. Opportunities exist to put this waste heat to use economically in order to reduce the energy consumption in the plant. The purpose of this course is to identify opportunities to recover waste heat, and the equipment used to recover waste heat. The process for calculating waste heat recovery will also be addressed, along with the factors that influence the feasibility of waste heat recovery.

 
 

  
 
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